|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||49,917,934|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||13,143,549|
A Conversation Analytic Study on the Teachers’ Management of Understanding-Check Question Sequences in EFL Classrooms
|Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning|
|مقاله 6، دوره 5، شماره 12، اسفند 2013، صفحه 109-134 اصل مقاله (667.5 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Research Paper|
|Baqer Yaqubi* 1؛ Sediqeh Karimpour2|
|1Associate Professor, University of Mazandaran|
|2MA in ELT, University of Mazandaran|
|Teacher questions are claimed to be constitutive of classroom interaction because of their crucial role both in the construction of knowledge and the organization of classroom proceedings (Dalton Puffer, 2007). Most of previous research on teachers’ questions mainly focused on identifying and discovering different question types believed to be helpful in creating the opportunities for learners’ interactions. Drawing on conversation analysis through adopting socio-cultural perspective, this study, however, aims to examine how EFL teachers manage understanding-check questions in their talk-in-interaction. For this purpose, six EFL teachers’ discursive classroom practices were observed, video-recorded, and transcribed line-by-line in its entirety. Through the microanalysis of the transcribed data, our findings suggest that EFL teachers vary in their management of understanding-check questions and the teachers’ understanding-check questions tend to serve different functions in the different micro-contexts identified. Three major sequential environments emerged to feature understanding-check questions in this study: Activity-boundary environment, post-instruction environment and within-activity environment. The findings of the study indicate that understanding-check questions at activity boundary environment are designed to accomplish dual functions, however those launched in post-instruction and within-activity environments maintain a singular focus on ensuring absolute understanding of the just-given explanation or instruction.|
|Classroom Interaction؛ Conversation Analysis؛ Understanding-Check questions|
Brock, C. A. (1986). The Effects of Referential Questions on ESL Classroom Discourse. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 47 – 5.
Cabrera, M. & Martinez, P. (2001), the Effects of Repetition, Comprehension Checks and Gestures on Primary School Children in EFL Situation. ELT Journal. 55(3).
Dalton-Puffer, C., & Smit, U. (eds.) (2007) Empirical perspectives on CLIL classroom discourse. (pp. 7-24). Frankfurt: Lang.
Donato, R. (2000). Sociocultural contributions to understanding the second language classroom, In J.P. Lantolf (ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (pp.25-40). Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2008). The Study of second language acquisition. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Foster, P, & Ohta, A. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language Classrooms. Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 402-430.
Gass, S. (1997). Input, interaction and the second language learner. Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gibbons, P. (2003). Mediating language learning: Teacher interactions with ESL students in a content-based classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 37(2), 247–273.
Heritage, J., Robinson, J., Elliott, M., Beckett, M., & Wilkes, M. (2007). Reducing patients’ unmet concerns in primary care: The difference one word can make. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22, 1429–1433.
Hutchby, I., & Wooffitt (1998). Conversation Analysis. Cambridge, England: Polity Press.
Jefferson, G. (1983). Notes on some orderliness of overlap onset. Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature No. 28.
Johnson, K.E. (1995). Understanding communication in second language classrooms. New York NY: CUP.
Kasper, G. (2009). Locating cognition in second language interaction and learning: Inside the skull or in public view? International Review of Applied Linguistics, 47, 11–36.
Kasper, G., & Wagner, J. (2011).A conversation analytic approach to second language acquisition. In D. Atkinson (Ed.), Alternative approaches to second language acquisition (pp.117–142). NewYork, NY: Routledge.
Kim, Y. (2010). Scaffolding through questions in upper elementary ELL learning. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 15, 109-137.
Koshik, I. (2002). A conversation analytic study of yes/no questions which convey reversed polarity assertions. Journal of Pragmatics, 34, 1851–1877.
Lee, Y. A. (2006). Respecifying display questions: Interactional resources for language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 40(4), 691–713.
Long, M. (1983). Native speaker/non- native speaker conversation and the negotiation of meaning. Applied Linguistics, 4, 126–41.
Long, M. (2007). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Long, M., & Sato C.J. (1983). Classroom foreigner talk Discourse: forms and functions of teacher’s questions in Salinger and M. H. Long (eds). Classroom – oriented research in second language acquisition. (PP.268 – 285) Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Musumeci, D. (1996). Teacher–learner negotiation in content-instruction: communication at cross-purposes. Applied Linguistics, 17(3), 286–325.
Raymond, G. (2003). Grammar and social organization: Yes/no interrogatives and the structure of responding. American Sociological Review, 68, 939–967.
Richards, J. C., & Lockhart, C. (1996).Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Psathas, G. (1995). Conversation analysis: The study of talk-in-interaction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sacks, H. (1987).On the preferences for agreement and contiguity in sequences in conversation. In G. Button & J. R. E. Lee (eds.), Talk and social organization (pp. 54–69). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Seedhouse, P. (2004). The interactional architecture of the language classroom: A conversation analysis Perspective. Blackwell Publishing: University of Michigan.
Shomoossi, N. (2004). The effect of teachers` questioning behavior on EFL Classroom interaction: A classroom research study. The Reading Matrix, 4(2).
Ten Have, P. (2007). Doing conversation analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Thompson, J. (1997). Training teachers to ask questions. ELT Journal, 51, 99–105.
Ur, P. (1996). A course in language teaching: Practice and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wajnryb, R. (1992). Classroom observation tasks: A resource book for language teachers and trainers. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Walsh, S. (2006).Investigating classroom discourse. Cambridge. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Walsh, S. (2013). Conversations as space for learning. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 1-20.
Waring, H. Z. (2012). Any Questions?: Investigating the Role of Understanding-Checks in Language Classrooms. TESOL Quarterly.
Waring. H. Z. (2013). How was your weekend?: developing the interactional competence in managing routine inquiries. Language Awareness. 22(1), 1–16.
Wong, J., & Waring, H. Z. (2010).Conversation analysis and second language pedagogy: A guide for ESL/ EFL teachers. New York: Routledge.
Wootton, A. J. (1989). Remarks on the methodology of conversation analysis. in D. Roger & P. Bull (Eds.), Conversation: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 238–258). Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 54
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 32