|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||49,932,666|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||13,139,674|
Discovering Iranian EFL Teachers’ Metalinguistic Knowledge: The Role of Academic Degree and Teaching Experience in Focus
|Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning|
|دوره 13، شماره 28، اسفند 2021، صفحه 243-260 اصل مقاله (776.59 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Research Paper|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22034/elt.2021.46794.2410|
|Najmeh Talaie1؛ Ehsan Rezvani2؛ Ehsan Namaziandost* 3|
|1Sobhe-Sadegh Institute of Higher Education, Isfahan, Iran|
|2Department of English Language, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.|
|3Department of English Language, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.|
|The relevance of metalinguistic knowledge in effective teaching of the four language skills is evident. As such, the present study sought to determine the degree of Iranian EFL teachers’ metalinguistic knowledge by focusing on the role of academic degree in English Language Teaching (ELT) and teaching experience. The study drew on a mixed-methods research design, and the data were collected through a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, exploring teachers' perceptions and evaluations of metalinguistic knowledge. Additionally, in order to evaluate the declarative knowledge of teachers regarding their grammatical awareness, a test of English Grammar Knowledge was administered among 94 novice and experienced EFL teachers with and without an academic degree in ELT teaching in private language institutes. The results of the questionnaire and interview indicated that while the importance of having grammatical knowledge was evident for participants, experienced teachers displayed more positive views toward grammar awareness. Furthermore, the teachers' performance on the grammar test showed that while formal education helps teachers improve their knowledge, it is not the only determining factor for high levels of declarative knowledge of language. On the contrary, teachers' background knowledge was found to result in high levels of metalinguistic knowledge. Additionally, the results revealed that years of teaching experience does not determine the levels of teachers’ metalinguistic knowledge. The study provides implications for EFL teachers and teacher trainers.|
|Teacher Language Awareness؛ Metalinguistic Knowledge؛ Teacher Cognition؛ Teaching Experience|
Aghaei, P., & Jadidi, E. (2013). The effect of EFL teachers‟ language awareness and gender on their reflectivity. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 4(3), 94-104.
Akbari, R., & Yazdanmehr, E. (2012). EFL teachers’ recruitment and dynamic assessment in private language institutes of Iran. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 8, 29-51.
Akiba, M., LeTendre, G. K., & Scribner, J. P. (2007). Teacher quality, opportunity gap, and national achievement in 46 countries. Educational Researcher, 36(7), 369-387.
Almarshedi, R. M. (2017). Metalinguistic knowledge of female language teachers and student teachers in an English Language department in Saudi Arabia; level, nature and self-perceptions (Doctoral dissertation, School of Education).
Andrews, S. (1997) Metalinguistic awareness and teacher explanation. Language Awareness, 6(2-3), pp. 147-161.
Andrews, S. (1999a). The metalinguistic awareness of Hong Kong secondary school teachers of English (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southampton).
Andrews, S. (1999b) Why do L2 teachers need to 'know about language'? Teacher metalinguistic awareness and input for learning. Language and Education, 13(3), pp. 161-177.
Andrews, S. (1999c). 'All these like little name things': A comparative study of language teachers' explicit knowledge of grammar and grammatical terminology. Language Awareness, 8(3-4), 143-159.
Andrews, S. (2005). Professional standards in TEFL: A challenge for Asia. The Journal of AsiaTEFL, 2(2), 1-22.
Andrews, S. (2006) The evolution of teacher language awareness. Language Awareness, 15(1), pp. 1-19.
Andrews, S. (2007). Researching and developing teacher language awareness. In International handbook of English language teaching (pp. 945-959). Springer, Boston, MA.
Andrews, S. (2008) Teacher language awareness. in Cenoz, J., (ed.) Encyclopedia of Language and Education, New York: Springer. pp. 287-298.
Andrews, S. and McNeill, A. (2005) Knowledge about language and the good language teacher. in Bartels, N., (ed.) Applied linguistics and language teacher education, New York: Springer. pp. 159-178.
Arıoğul, S. (2007). Understanding foreign language teachers' practical knowledge: What's the role of prior language learning experience?. Dil ve Dilbilimi Çalışmaları Dergisi, 3(1), 168-181.
Association for Language Awareness (ALA): http://www.lexically.net/ala/la_defined. htm.
Azar, B. (2007). Grammar-based teaching: A practitioners perspective. TESL-EJ, 11(2), 1-12.
Bolitho, R., Carter, R., Hughes, R., Ivanič, R., Masuhara, H., & Tomlinson, B. (2003). Ten questions about language awareness. ELT journal, 57(3), 251-259.
Borg, S. 2005. Experience, knowledge about language and classroom practice in teaching grammar. In Applied linguistics and language teacher education, ed. N. Bartels, 325–340. Boston: Springer.
Borg, S. 2011. Language teacher education. In The Routledge handbook of applied linguistics, ed. J. Simpson, 215–228. London and New York: Routledge.
Burgess, J., & Etherington, S. (2002). Focus on grammatical form: explicit or implicit?. System, 30(4), 433-458.
Carter, R. (1995) How aware should language aware teachers and learners be? in Nunan, D., Berry, R., and Berry, V., (eds) Language awareness in language education, Hong Kong: Department of Curriculum Studies, University of Hong Kong. pp. 1-16.
Darling-Hammond, L., & Youngs, P. (2002). Defining “highly qualified teachers”: What does “scientifically-based research” actually tell us?. Educational researcher, 31(9), 13-25.
Edge, J. (1988). Applying linguistics in English language teacher training for speakers of other languages. ELT journal, 42(1), 9-13.
Faruji, L. F. (2012). Teachers' teaching styles at english language institutes in Iran. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 2(1), 364-373.
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American psychologist, 34(10), 906.
Freeman, D., & Johnson, K. E. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge‐base of language teacher education. TESOL quarterly, 32(3), 397-417.
Foltz, K. (2018). Applications and Beliefs of Second Language Teachers' Linguistic Knowledge and Awareness. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY.
Ganji, M., Ketabi, S., & Shahnazari, M. (2018). English teacher training courses in Iranian private language institutes: Issues and options. Issues in Educational Research, 28(2), 367-384.
Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school teacher certification status and student achievement. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 22(2), 129-145.
Grossman, P. L., & Richert, A. E. (1988). Unacknowledged knowledge growth: A re-examination of the effects of teacher education. Teaching and teacher Education, 4(1), 53-62.
Grossman, P. L. (1991). What are we talking about anyway: Subject-matter knowledge of secondary English teachers. In J. Brophy (Ed.), Advances in Research on Teaching, Vol. 2 (pp. 245-264). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc.
Haghighi, F. M. & Norton, B. (2016). The role of English language institutes in Iran. TESOL Quarterly, 51(2), 428-438.
Hos, R., & Kekec, M. (2014). The Mismatch between Non-native English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers' Grammar Beliefs and Classroom Practices. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 5(1).
James, C. (1999) Language awareness: Implications for the language curriculum. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 12, 94–115.
Johnston, B., & Goettsch, K. (2000). In search of the knowledge base of language teaching: Explanations by experienced teachers. Canadian Modern Language Review, 56(3), 437-468.
Marshall, P., Fittinghoff, S., & Cheney, C. O. (1990). Beginning teacher developmental stages: implications for creating collaborative internship programs. Teacher Education Quarterly, 25-35.
Mohsenian, M., Rezai, A., & Abdolmanafi-Rokni, S. J. (2015). An investigation into the criteria for selecting teachers in English language institutes in Iran. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(5), 215-230.
Moini, M. R. (2009). The impact of EFL teachers’ cognition on teaching foreign language grammar. Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji, 49, 141-164.
Musset, P. (2010). Initial teacher education and continuing training policies in a comparative perspective: Current practices in OECD Countries and a literature review on potential effects.OECD Education Working Papers, No 48, OECD Publishing.
Myhill, D., Jones, S., & Watson, A. (2013). Grammar matters: How teachers' grammatical knowledge impacts on the teaching of writing. Teaching and teacher education, 36, 77-91.
Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S. S. (2011). Teaching grammar in second language classrooms: Integrating form-focused instruction in communicative context. Routledge.
National Research Council. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school: Expanded edition. National Academies Press.
Nazari, A., & Allahyar, N. (2012). Grammar Teaching Revisited: EFL Teachers between Grammar Abstinence and Formal Grammar Teaching. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(2), 73-87.
Njika, J. A. (2015). Teacher metalinguistic awareness as an essential component of language teaching/learning: case study of ELT in Cameroon. Syllabus Review 6 (2), 23 - 52.
Petraki, E., & Hill, D. (2011). Effective grammar teaching: Lessons from confident grammar teachers. TESOL in Context, 21(2), 34.
Rivkin, S., Hanushek, E.A., & Kain, J.F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458.
Sangster, P., Anderson, C. and O’Hara, P. (2013a) Perceived and actual levels of knowledge about language amongst primary and secondary student teachers: do they know what they think they know? Language Awareness, 22(4), pp. 293-319.
Shuib, M. (2009) Grammatical awareness among primary school English language teachers. in GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 35. pp. 35-46.
Shulman, L. (1999) Foreword. in Darling-Hamiond, L. and Sykes, G., (ed.) Teaching as the learning profession, SanFrancisco: CA:Jossey-Bass. pp. xi-xiv.
Stanley, P., & Murray, N. (2013). Qualified? A framework for comparing ELT teacher preparation courses. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 36(1), 102-115.
Svalberg, A. M. L., & Askham, J. (2014). Student teachers’ collaborative construction of grammar awareness: The case of a highly competent learner. Language Awareness, 23(1-2), 123-137.
Swan, M. 2011. Grammar. In The Routledge handbook of applied linguistics, ed. J. Simpson, 557–570. London and New York: Routledge.
Thornbury, S. (1997) About language: Tasks for teachers of English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tsui, A.B.M. (2003) Understanding Expertise in Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wach, A. (2014). Language awareness in EFL teachers, teacher trainees and advanced learners. in Łyda, A. and Szcześniak, K., (ed.) Awareness in action: Springer International Publishing. pp. 51-66.
Wolters, C. A., & Daugherty, S. G. (2007). Goal structures and teachers' sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of educational psychology, 99(1), 181.
Wright, T., & Bolitho, R. (1993). Language awareness: a missing link in language teacher education?. ELT journal, 47(4), 292-304.
Zhang, J. (2009). Necessity of grammar teaching. International Education Studies, 2(2), 184.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 221
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 188