|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||49,929,975|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||13,135,919|
Interpersonal Behavior: More vs. Less Favorable Teachers
|Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning|
|دوره 13، شماره 28، اسفند 2021، صفحه 79-94 اصل مقاله (814.73 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Research Paper|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22034/elt.2021.47250.2417|
|Hajar Ghafarpour* 1؛ Ahmad Moinzadeh2|
|1Department of English Language Teaching, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran|
|2Department of English Language Teaching, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.|
|Classrooms can be regarded as dynamic systems in which behaviors of teachers and students affect each other mutually and in a spiral manner. In this study it was intended to investigate differences in interpersonal behaviors of a more vs. a less favorable teacher at micro- and macro-levels. To analyze classroom interaction dynamically and in real-time, State Space Grid technique was applied. On the macro-level, teacher profiles were determined based on vector method. 211 students of six classes rated the behavior of their own teacher and an imaginary ideal one. One teacher who was closest to and one farthest from that ideal were identified and their classes were video-taped. Two raters coded behaviors with a joystick and then content and structure of interaction were analyzed. Differences on the micro-level were especially noticeable in the strength of attractors, not in their position. Structurally, the behavior of the more favorable teacher had higher variability and less predictability. On the macro-level, the more favorable teacher had Authoritative, and the less favorable one had Directive profiles. The results of this study can be used in promoting interactive ground of the class and in teacher education programs.|
|Complex Dynamics System؛ Model of Interpersonal Teacher Behavior؛ State Space Grid Technique؛ Micro and Macro-Level Analysis of Behavior؛ Agency and Communion|
Ahmadi Safa, M., & Doosti, M. (2017). A culturally-adaptive Iranian version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction to investigate English teachers’ interpersonal behavior. Learning Environments Research, 20(2), 199-219.
den Brok, P. (2001). Teaching and student outcomes. A study on teachers’ thoughts and actions from an interpersonal and a learning activities perspective. Utrecht: W.C.C.
den Brok, L., Taconis, R., & Fisher, D. (2010). How well do science teachers do? Differences in teacher-student interpersonal behaviour between science teachers and teachers of other (school) subjects. Open Education Journal, 3, 44-53.
Bruckmüller, S., & Abele, A. E. (2013). The density of the big two: How are agency and communion structurally represented? Social Psychology, 44(2), 63-74.
Dermody, S., Thomas, K. M., Hopwood, C. J., Durbin, C. E., & Wright, A. G. C. (2017). Modeling the complexity of dynamic, momentary interpersonal behavior: Applying the time-varying effect model to test predictions from interpersonal theory. Journal of Research in Personality, 68, 54–62.
Fisher, D. L., Henderson, D., & Fraser, B. J. (1995). Interpersonal behavior in senior high school biology classes. Research in Science Education, 25, 125–133.
Ghafarpour, H., & Moinzadeh, A. (2019). A dynamic systems analysis of classrooms: teacher experience and student motivation. Learning Environments Research, 23, 101–116.
Ghafarpour, H., Moinzadeh, A., & Eslami Rasekh, A. (2018). I Am Good at It Because I Like Its Teacher: To what Extent Does Teacher Behavior Motivate Students to Learn? Teaching English Language, 12 (2); pp. 67-87.
Hollenstein, T. (2013). State space grids: Depicting dynamics across development. New York: Springer.
Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. L. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.
Lamey, A., Hollenstein, T., Lewis, M. D., & Granic, I. (2004). GridWare (Version 1.1). [Computer software].
Lewis, M. D., Lamey, A. V., & Douglas, L. (1999). A new dynamic systems method for the analysis of early socioemotional development. Developmental Science, 2, 457-475.
Lizdek, I., Sadler, P., Woody, E., Ethier, N., & Malet, G. (2012). Capturing the stream of behavior: A computer joystick method for coding interpersonal behavior continuously over time. Social Science Computer Review, 30(4), 513-521.
Mainhard, M. T., Pennings, H. J. M., Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2012) Mapping agency and communion in teacher-student interaction with state space grids. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 1027–1037.
Markey, P. M., Lowmaster, S. E., & Eichler, W. C. (2010). A real-time assessment of interpersonal complementarity. Personal Relationships, 17, 13–25.
Maulanaa, R., Opdenakker, M. C., den Brok, P., & Bosker, R. (2011). Teacher–student interpersonal relationships in Indonesia: profiles and importance to student motivation. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 31(1), 33–49.
Nugent, T. (2009). The impact of teacher-student interaction on student motivation and achievement. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Central Florida, USA.
O’Connor, E. (2010). Teacher-student relationships as dynamic systems. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 187–218.
Passini, S., Molinari, L., & Speltini, G. (2015). A validation of the questionnaire on teacher interaction in Italian secondary school students: the effect of positive relations on motivation and academic achievement. Social psychological education, 18, 547–559.
Pennings, H. J. M. (2017a). Interpersonal dynamics in teacher-student interactions and relationships. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Pennings, H. J. M. (2017b). Using a complexity approach to study the interpersonal dynamics in teacher-student interactions: A case study of two teachers. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education, 14, 88-103.
Pennings, H. J. M., Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, T., van der Want, A. C., Claessens, L. C. A., & van Tartwijk, J. (2014). A nonlinear dynamical systems approach to real-time teacher behavior: differences between teachers. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 18(1), 23-45.
Pennings, H. J. M. & Hollenstein, T. (2019). Teacher-student interactions and teacher interpersonal styles: a state space grid analysis. The journal of experimental education. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2019.1578724.
Pennings, H. J. M., & Mainhard, T. (2016). Analyzing teacher–student interactions with state space grids. In Koopmans M, D. Stamovlasis (Eds) Complex dynamical systems in education: concepts, methods and applications. Switzerland: Springer international publishing, 233-271.
Pennings, H. J. M., van Tartwijk, J., Wubbels, T., Claessens, L. C. A., van der Want, A. C., & Brekelmans, M. (2014). Real-time teacher-student interactions: A dynamic systems approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 183-193.
Pianta, R. C. (2016). Teacher-student interactions: Measurement, impacts, improvement, and policy. Policy insights from the behavioral and brain sciences, 3(1), 98-105.
Roorda, D. L. (2012). Teacher-child relationships and interaction processes: Effects on students’ learning behaviors and reciprocal influences between teacher and child (unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Sadler, P., Ethier, N., Gunn, G. R., Duong, D., & Woody, E. (2009). Are we on the same wavelength? Interpersonal complementarity as shared cyclical patterns during interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(6), 1005-1020.
Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., & Thij, J. T. (2011). Teacher wellbeing: the importance of teacher student relationship. Educational psychology review, 23(4), 457-477.
Steenbeek, H., & van Geert, P. (2013). The emergence of learning teaching trajectories in education: a complex dynamic systems approach. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 17(2), 233-267.
Tuckman, B. W. (1995). The interpersonal teacher model. The educational forum, 59.
Urhahne, D. (2015). Teacher behavior as a mediator of the relationship between teacher judgment and students' motivation and emotion. Teaching and Teacher Education, 45, 73-82.
Wei, M., & Onsawad, A. (2007). English teachers’ actual and ideal interpersonal behavior and student’s outcome in secondary schools of Thailand. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 4(2), 95-121.
Wubbels, Th., & Brekelmans, M. (2005). Two decades of research on teacher-student relationships in class. Journal of Educational Research, 43, 6-24.
Wubbels, Th., Brekelmans, M., den Brok, P., & Van Tartwijk, J. (2006). An interpersonal perspective on classroom management in secondary classrooms in the Netherlands. In Evertson C, C. Weinstein (Eds) Handbook of classroom management: Research practice and contemporary issues. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1161-1191.
Wubbels, Th., & Levy, J. (1991). A comparison of interpersonal behavior of Dutch and American teachers. International Journal of Intercultural Behavior, 15, 1-18.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 251
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 291